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"República Filipina" redirects here. For other uses, see Philippine Republic (disambiguation).

The Philippine Republic (Spanish: República Filipina, Tagalog: Republika ng Pilipinas), more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a short-lived nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan, and endured until the capture and surrender of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic.

The establishment of the Philippine Republic was the culmination of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule. On June 12, 1898, at Aguinaldo's ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence was read. The act had been prepared and written in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who also read its proclamation. The Malolos Congress convened on 15 September, and produced the Malolos Constitution. That constitution was proclaimed on 22 January 1899, transforming the government into what is known today as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as its president. In the meantime, on December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris had been signed, ending the Spanish–American War. Article 3 of the treaty transferred the Philippines from Spain to the United States.

The Philippine–American War then ensued. Aguinaldo was captured by U.S. forces on March 23, 1901 and swore an oath accepting the authority of the United States over the Philippines and pledging his allegiance to the American government. On April 19, he issued a Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, telling his followers to lay down their weapons and give up the fight, effectively ending the First Philippine Republic. Subsequently, the U.S. continued its annexation of the islands pursuant to the Treaty of Paris. The Philippines was under US sovereignty until 1946, when formal independence was granted by the Treaty of Manila. It was the first Constitutional Republic in Asia. It was titled "Constitución política", and was written in Spanish following the declaration of independence from Spain, proclaimed on January 20, 1899, and was enacted and ratified by the Malolos Congress, a Congress held in Malolos.

Although there were several Asian republics predating the First Philippine Republic, i.e. the Republic of Formosa or the Republic of Ezo, the Republic at Malolos was the first to frame a comprehensive constitution duly approved by an elected congress.


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