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Democracy is a form of government where citizens participate in government by choosing the government through free and fair elections and the politicians represent their constituents. Democracies ensure active participation of the citizens in politics and civic life. In a democratic society, eligible citizens are able to vote for the passing or rejecting of laws, run for office during elections, join political parties, sit on boards or committees, criticize or protest against the government, and receive a fair trial if accused of breaking the country's laws. Politicians represent their constituents in the proposal, development and establishment of the laws by which their society is run.
The term originates from the Greek δημοκρατία (dēmokratía) "rule of the people", which was found from δῆμος (dêmos) "people" and κράτος (krátos) "power" or "rule" in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens; the term is an antonym to ἀριστοκρατία (aristokratía) "rule of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to an elite class of free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.
Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
Several variants of democracy exist, but there are two basic forms, both of which concern how the whole body of all eligible citizens executes its will. One form of democracy is direct democracy, in which all eligible citizens have direct and active participation in the political decision making. In most modern democracies, the whole body of eligible citizens remain the sovereign power but political power is exercised indirectly through elected representatives; this is called a representative democracy.
- Diamond, L., Lecture at Hilla University for Humanistic Studies January 21, 2004: "What is Democracy"
- δημοκρατία in Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus
- Wilson, N. G. (2006). Encyclopedia of ancient Greece. New York: Routledge. p. 511. ISBN 0-415-97334-1.
- Barker, Ernest (1906). The Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle. Chapter VII, Section 2: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
- Jarvie, 2006, pp. 218–9
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